The Berlin Republic: German Unification and A Decade of Changes
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Description Details Customer Reviews Since German unification in October, , arguments have raged as to whether the integration process of the former East Germany into the western system has been a success. These essays offer fresh insight and perspectives explaining the effects of unification on Germany and the EU as a whole.
Review This Product No reviews yet - be the first to create one! Need help? Partners MySchool Discovery. Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully. The unification of Germany excluding Austria and the German-speaking areas of Switzerland was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in The new Reichstag , an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government.
Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in Africa and the Pacific. By , Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its rapidly expanding industry had surpassed Britain's while provoking it in a naval arms race. Defeated and partly occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Czechoslovakia, Belgium, France, and Poland.
The German Revolution of —19 put an end to the federal constitutional monarchy , which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic , an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. His Nazi Party quickly established a totalitarian regime, and Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met.
Remilitarization of the Rhineland came in , then annexation of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in , and further territory of Czechoslovakia in Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June Racism, especially antisemitism , was a central feature of the Nazi regime.
In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas , the systematic genocide program known as the Holocaust killed 11 million, including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Poles, Romanies, Soviets Russian and non-Russian , and others. In , the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, and after the United States entered the war , Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities.
History of Germany - Wikipedia
Following the Allied invasion of Normandy June , the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May Under occupation by the Allies , German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, and the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany , reduced in territory by the establishment of the Oder-Neisse line. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported from pre-war Eastern Germany , Sudetenland , and from all over Eastern Europe , or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion , and became the dominant economy in Western Europe.
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West Germany was rearmed in the s under the auspices of NATO but without access to nuclear weapons. In —, Germany was one of the founding countries of the eurozone. Germany remains one of the economic powerhouses of Europe, contributing about one-quarter of the eurozone's annual gross domestic product. In the early s, Germany played a critical role in trying to resolve the escalating euro crisis, especially concerning Greece and other Southern European nations. In the middle of the decade, the country faced the European migrant crisis as the main receiver of asylum seekers from Syria and other troubled regions.
For more events, see Timeline of German history. The discovery of the Homo heidelbergensis mandible in affirms archaic human presence in Germany by at least , years ago.
Between and , eight ,year-old wooden javelins between 1. The archaic nature of the fossils, now known to be around 40, years old, was recognized and the characteristics published in the first-ever paleoanthropologic species description in by Hermann Schaaffhausen. The remains of Paleolithic early modern human occupation uncovered and documented in several caves in the Swabian Jura include various mammoth ivory sculptures that rank among the oldest uncontested works of art and several flutes, made of bird bone and mammoth ivory that are confirmed to be the oldest musical instruments ever found.
The ethnogenesis of the Germanic tribes remains debated. Factual and detailed knowledge about the early history of the Germanic tribes is rare.
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Researchers have to be content with the recordings of the tribes' affairs with the Romans , linguistic conclusions, archaeological discoveries and the rather new yet auspicious results of archaeogenetic study. After several days and having made no contact with Germanic troops who had retreated inland Caesar returned to the west of the river. Consequent plans to populate the region with Germanic settlers from the east were vehemently opposed by Caesar, who had already launched his ambitious campaign to subjugate all Gaul.
Emperor Augustus considered conquest beyond the Rhine and the Danube not only regular foreign policy but also necessary to counter Germanic incursions into a still rebellious Gaul. A series of forts and commercial centers were established along the two rivers. Some tribes, such as the Ubii consequently allied with Rome and readily adopted advanced Roman culture. During the 1st century CE Roman legions conducted extended campaigns into Germania magna , the area north of the Upper Danube and east of the Rhine, attempting to subdue the various tribes.
Roman ideas of administration, the imposition of taxes and a legal framework were frustrated by the total absence of an infrastructure. The campaigns of Germanicus , for example were almost exclusively characterized by frequent massacres of villagers and indiscriminate pillaging. The tribes, however maintained their elusive identities.
In 9 AD a coalition of tribes under the Cherusci chieftain Arminius , who was familiar with Roman tactical doctrines, defeated a sizeable Roman force in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Several Germanic tribes lived under Roman rule south and west of the border, as described in Tacitus 's Germania.
Austria formed the regular provinces of Noricum and Raetia. By the 3rd century the Germanic peoples began to migrate beyond the limes and the Danube frontier. Christianity was introduced to Roman controlled south-western Germania and Christian religious structures such as the Aula Palatina of Trier were built during the reign of Constantine I r. By the end of the 4th century the Huns invaded eastern and central Europe. The event triggered the Migration Period. The concept of such duchies survived especially in the areas which by the 9th century would constitute East Francia ,  which included the Duchy of Bavaria , the Duchy of Swabia , the Duchy of Saxony , the Duchy of Franconia and the Duchy of Thuringia ,  unlike further west the County of Burgundy or Lorraine in Middle Francia.
The Salian emperors reigned — retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of Germany, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufen , and Frederick Barbarossa finally abolished them in in favour of more numerous territorial duchies. Successive kings of Germany founded a series of border counties or marches in the east and the north.
In the south, the marches included Carniola , Styria , and the March of Austria that would become Austria. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Franks, like other post-Roman Western Europeans, emerged as a tribal confederacy in the Middle Rhine-Weser region, among the territory soon to be called Austrasia the "eastern land" , the northeastern portion of the future Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks.
Unlike the Alamanni to their south in Swabia , they absorbed large swaths of former Roman territory as they spread west into Gaul , beginning in Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty conquered northern Gaul in and in the Battle of Tolbiac in the Alemanni tribe in Swabia , which eventually became the Duchy of Swabia. By , Clovis had united all the Frankish tribes, ruled all of Gaul  and was proclaimed King of the Franks between and His successors would cooperate closely with papal missionaries, among them Saint Boniface.
After the death of Clovis in , his four sons partitioned his kingdom including Austrasia. Authority over Austrasia passed back and forth from autonomy to royal subjugation, as successive Merovingian kings alternately united and subdivided the Frankish lands. During the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered the Thuringii to , the Kingdom of the Burgundians and the principality of Metz and defeated the Danes, the Saxons and the Visigoths. Saxons controlled the area from the northern sea board to the Harz Mountains and the Eichsfeld in the south. The Merovingians placed the various regions of their Frankish Empire under the control of semi-autonomous dukes — either Franks or local rulers,  and followed imperial Roman strategic traditions of social and political integration of the newly conquered territories.
In Charles Martel waged war against the Saxons in support of the Neustrians. In his son Carloman in his role as Mayor of the Palace renewed the war against the Saxons, who had allied with and aided the duke Odilo of Bavaria. Peter  in response to the Donation of Pepin , that guaranteed the sovereignty of the Papal States. Charles the Great who ruled the Franks from to launched a decades-long military campaign against the Franks' heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars.
The campaigns and insurrections of the Saxon Wars lasted from to The Franks eventually overwhelmed the Saxons and Avars, forcibly converted the people to Christianity , and annexed their lands to the Carolingian Empire. After the death of Frankish king Pepin the Short in , his oldest son " Charlemagne " "Charles the Great" consolidated his power over and expanded the Kingdom.
Charlemagne ended years of Royal Lombard rule with the Siege of Pavia , and in he installed himself as King of the Lombards. Loyal Frankish nobles replaced the old Lombard aristocracy following a rebellion in Fighting among Charlemagne's three grandsons over the continuation of the custom of partible inheritance or the introduction of primogeniture caused the Carolingian empire to be partitioned into three parts by the Treaty of Verdun of This encompassed the territories of the German stem duchies — Franks, Saxons, Swabians , and Bavarians — that were united in a federation under the first non-Frankish king Henry the Fowler , who ruled from to Aachen Palace played a central role, as the local Palatine Chapel served as the official site for all royal coronation ceremonies during the entire Medieval period until The division of the Carolingian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun in Territorial evolution of the Holy Roman Empire from to The Holy Roman Empire around the year Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands.
Otto continued to support celibacy for the higher clergy, so ecclesiastical appointments never became hereditary. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive defeat of the Hungarian Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated. Otto marched on Rome and drove John XII from the papal throne and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come. During the reign of Conrad II's son, Henry III to , the empire supported the Cluniac reforms of the Church, the Peace of God , prohibition of simony the purchase of clerical offices , and required celibacy of priests.
Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. Pope Gregory insisted in his Dictatus Papae on absolute papal authority over appointments to ecclesiastical offices. The subsequent conflict in which emperor Henry IV was compelled to submit to the Pope at Canossa in , after having been excommunicated came to be known as the Investiture Controversy.
In a temporary reconciliation was reached between Henry V and the Pope with the Concordat of Worms. With the conclusion of the dispute the Roman church and the papacy regained supreme control over all religious affairs. Between and the various campaigns of the crusades to the Holy Land took place. The term sacrum imperium Holy Empire was first used officially by Friedrich I in ,  but the words Sacrum Romanum Imperium , Holy Roman Empire, were only combined in July and would never consistently appear on official documents from onwards.
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive alliance of the merchant guilds of towns and cities in northern and central Europe that dominated marine trade in the Baltic Sea , the North Sea and along the connected navigable rivers during the Late Middle Ages 12th to 15th centuries. Each of the affiliated cities retained the legal system of its sovereign and, with the exception of the Free imperial cities , had only a limited degree of political autonomy. Important centers of commerce within the empire, such as Cologne on the Rhine river and Bremen on the North Sea joined the union, which resulted in greater diplomatic esteem.
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By the late 14th century the powerful league enforced its interests with military means, if necessary. This culminated in a war with the sovereign Kingdom of Denmark from to The league declined after due to a number of factors, such as the 15th-century crisis , the territorial lords' shifting policies towards greater commercial control, the silver crisis and marginalization in the wider Eurasian trade network, among others.
The Ostsiedlung lit. Eastern settlement is the term for a process of largely uncoordinated immigration and chartering of settlement structures by ethnic Germans into territories, already inhabited by Slavs and Balts east of the Saale and Elbe rivers, such as modern Poland and Silesia and to the south into Bohemia , modern Hungary and Romania during the High Middle Ages from the 11th to the 14th century. Conquered territories were mostly lost after the troops had retreated, but eventually were incorporated into the empire as marches , fortified borderlands with garrisoned troops in strongholds and castles, who were to ensure military control and enforce the exaction of tributes.
Contemporary sources do not support the idea of policies or plans for the organized settlement of civilians. Emperor Lothair II re-established feudal sovereignty over Poland, Denmark and Bohemia since and appointed margraves to turn the borderlands into hereditary fiefs and install a civilian administration.