How to Find Out in Mathematics. A Guide to Sources of Information
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The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study. The discussion should be presented in the present tense. Conclusion End your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study.
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Black, Thomas R. London: Sage, ; Gay,L.
Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Bates College; Nenty, H. Basic Inquiry of Quantitative Research. Kennesaw State University. Quantitative researchers try to recognize and isolate specific variables contained within the study framework, seek correlation, relationships and causality, and attempt to control the environment in which the data is collected to avoid the risk of variables, other than the one being studied, accounting for the relationships identified.
Among the specific strengths of using quantitative methods to study social science research problems:. Sharpe, ; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative methods presume to have an objective approach to studying research problems, where data is controlled and measured, to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of behavior. As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be statistically significant but are often humanly insignificant. Some specific limitations associated with using quantitative methods to study research problems in the social sciences include:.
SAGE publications is a major publisher of studies about how to design and conduct research in the social and behavioral sciences.
The database also includes case studies outlining the research methods used in real research projects. This is an excellent source for finding definitions of key terms and descriptions of research design and practice, techniques of data gathering, analysis, and reporting, and information about theories of research [e. The database covers both qualitative and quantitative research methods as well as mixed methods approaches to conducting research.
Contact us. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Quantitative Methods This guide provides advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Conclusion Toggle Dropdown Appendices Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.
Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Its main characteristics are : The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments.
The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms.
Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.
Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods : Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating. Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section.
Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis.
Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis. It is important to understand that all information will have a certain degree of validity or otherwise. A document can be easily forged or altered, especially on the internet where anybody can publish anything. It is therefore necessary to use judgement when deciding which documents to use in the context of your study.
A primary document is a document that was written at the time of an event or period of research. Primary documents therefore include literary texts, letters, speeches and historical documents such as birth certificates and diaries. A live news-feed or the transcript of is a primary source — recording events as they unfold. Of course any major news event like the Olympic Games is likely to have several primary sources, accounts from different broadcasters. To get a fuller idea of the event you may look at more than one primary source of information — taking into account biases, points-of-view and personal or cultural perceptions.
A secondary document is written after an event - usually the authors will not have witnessed the event themselves.
Mathematical sciences: Using academic sources
Such documents are usually written with reference to primary documents and attempt to provide an interpretation. Core texts - academic texts related to the topic being studied - are an example of secondary documents. In current affairs a secondary source would be a standard news story. A story that has been reported after the event. Tertiary documents usually act as pointers to primary and secondary documents.
They are indexes, directories, bibliographies and other categorised collections of information - documents that you can turn to and be guided to other, potentially relevant, documents on a particular subject. For example, checking the bibliography of books can help to lead you to further research material or to looking at a list of similar stories on a news website. There are a lot of different sources of information available to you as a student. The following list cannot hope to cover all sources of information, rather, it contains the main sources you are likely to find useful.
Wherever you get your information, to ensure that you conform to academic standards and rules, you should keep a note of your sources. In the case of books and journals you should take especial care to note page numbers if you intend to use a quote or to paraphrase or summarise from any publication. For internet resources you need at least the URL web address as well as the date that you accessed any web-page from which you quote or to which you refer.
Do not overlook proper referencing, plagiarism is a serious academic offence — your assignments are likely to fail if you do not reference correctly or understand how to reference. For more help with referencing and avoiding plagiarism see our page Academic Referencing. It is often possible to go to a physical library without being a member and to search through the shelves and access publications and other resources.
If you are studying at a college or university you are likely to have access to their library. As a consequence, this is also true for their teachers. Effective teachers augment fluency procedure with:.
Extensive List of Credibile Websites, Newspapers, Journals
Students need to use the above both in school, and in real world contexts. Knowing a student as a mathematics learner is complex. This way, teachers update and deepen their understanding of individual students. Assessment in mathematics is primarily formative. It involves collecting information from a range of sources, in a variety of ways. Assessing a student involves making informed judgments about what the student knows.
Hence, effective teachers not only monitor the performance of a student, but also their ability to show their understanding of the content that has been taught.