Being the Chosen: Exploring a Christian Fundamentalist Worldview

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Edward Sapir — also gives an account of the relationship between thinking and speaking in English. The linguistic relativity hypothesis of Benjamin Lee Whorf — describes how the syntactic-semantic structure of a language becomes an underlying structure for the world view or Weltanschauung of a people through the organization of the causal perception of the world and the linguistic categorization of entities.

As linguistic categorization emerges as a representation of worldview and causality, it further modifies social perception and thereby leads to a continual interaction between language and perception. Whorf's hypothesis became influential in the late s, but declined in prominence after a decade. In the s, new research gave further support for the linguistic relativity theory in the works of Stephen Levinson — and his team at the Max Planck institute for psycholinguistics at Nijmegen , Netherlands. One of the most important concepts in cognitive philosophy and cognitive sciences is the German concept of Weltanschauung.

The term Weltanschauung is often wrongly attributed to Wilhelm von Humboldt, the founder of German ethnolinguistics. Underhill reminds us, Humboldt's key concept was Weltansicht. On the other hand, Weltanschauung , first used by Kant and later popularized by Hegel, was always used in German and later in English to refer more to philosophies, ideologies and cultural or religious perspectives, than to linguistic communities and their mode of apprehending reality.

In , the German philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey published an essay entitled "The Types of Worldview Weltanschauung and their Development in Metaphysics" that became quite influential. Dilthey characterized worldviews as providing a perspective on life that encompasses the cognitive, evaluative, and volitional aspects of human experience.

Although worldviews have always been expressed in literature and religion, philosophers have attempted to give them conceptual definition in their metaphysical systems. On that basis, Dilthey found it possible to distinguish three general recurring types of worldview. The first of these he called naturalism because it gives priority to the perceptual and experimental determination of what is and allows contingency to influence how we evaluate and respond to reality. Naturalism can be found in Democritus, Hobbes, Hume and many other modern philosophers. The second type of worldview is called the idealism of freedom and is represented by Plato, Descartes, Kant, and Bergson among others.

It is dualistic and gives primacy to the freedom of the will. The organizational order of our world is structured by our mind and the will to know. The third type is called objective idealism and Dilthey sees it in Heraclitus, Parmenides, Spinoza, Leibniz and Hegel. In objective idealism the ideal does not hover above what is actual but inheres in it. This third type of worldview is ultimately monistic and seeks to discern the inner coherence and harmony among all things.

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Dilthey thought it is impossible to come up with a universally valid metaphysical or systematic formulation of any of these worldviews, but regarded them as useful schema for his own more reflective kind of life philosophy. Anthropologically, worldviews can be expressed as the "fundamental cognitive, affective, and evaluative presuppositions a group of people make about the nature of things, and which they use to order their lives. If it were possible to draw a map of the world on the basis of Weltanschauung , [22] it would probably be seen to cross political borders— Weltanschauung is the product of political borders and common experiences of a people from a geographical region, [22] environmental - climatic conditions, the economic resources available, socio-cultural systems , and the language family.

If the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis is correct, the worldview map of the world would be similar to the linguistic map of the world. However, it would also almost coincide with a map of the world drawn on the basis of music across people. As natural language becomes manifestations of world perception , the literature of a people with common Weltanschauung emerges as holistic representations of the wide world perception of the people. Thus the extent and commonality between world folk-epics becomes a manifestation of the commonality and extent of a worldview.

Epic poems are shared often by people across political borders and across generations. A worldview, according to terror management theory TMT , serves as a buffer against death anxiety. Using a test of death-thought accessibility DTA , involving an ambiguous word completion test e. Mood was also measured following the worldview threat, to test whether the increase in death thoughts following worldview threat were due to other causes, for example, anger at the attack on one's cultural worldview.

To test the generalisability of these findings to groups and worldviews other than those of nationalistic Canadians, Schimel et al conducted a similar experiment on a group of religious individuals whose worldview included that of creationism.

If we made contact with aliens, how would religions react?

Goldenberg et al found that highlighting the similarities between humans and other animals increases death-thought accessibility, as does attention to the physical rather than meaningful qualities of sex. The term World View denotes a comprehensive set of opinions, seen as an organic unity , about the world as the medium and exercise of human existence. World View serves as a framework for generating various dimensions of human perception and experience like knowledge , politics , economics , religion , culture , science and ethics.

For example, worldview of causality as uni-directional , cyclic , or spiral generates a framework of the world that reflects these systems of causality. An unidirectional view of causality is present in some monotheistic views of the world with a beginning and an end and a single great force with a single end e. These worldviews of causality not only underlie religious traditions but also other aspects of thought like the purpose of history , political and economic theories, and systems like democracy , authoritarianism , anarchism , capitalism , socialism and communism.

World view - Wikipedia

With the development of science came a clockwork universe of regular operation according to principle. Physiological understanding began to include humans as automatons, but what about human volition? The Weltanschauung of the temporal contiguity of act and event leads to underlying diversifications like determinism vs. A worldview of free will leads to disciplines that are governed by simple laws that remain constant and are static and empirical in scientific method, while a worldview of determinism generates disciplines that are governed with generative systems and rationalistic in scientific method.

Some forms of philosophical naturalism and materialism reject the validity of entities inaccessible to natural science.

Christian Fundamentalism

They view the scientific method as the most reliable model for building an understanding of the world. Nishida Kitaro wrote extensively on "the Religious Worldview" in exploring the philosophical significance of Eastern religions. According to Neo-Calvinist David Naugle 's World view: The History of a Concept , "Conceiving of Christianity as a worldview has been one of the most significant developments in the recent history of the church.

The Christian thinker James W. Sire defines a worldview as "a commitment, a fundamental orientation of the heart, that can be expressed as a story or in a set of presuppositions assumptions which may be true, partially true, or entirely false which we hold consciously or subconsciously, consistently or inconsistently about the basic construction of reality, and that provides the foundation on which we live and move and have our being.

The commitment mentioned by James W.

Jennifer Yates

Sire can be extended further. The worldview increases the commitment to serve the world. This serving attitude has been illustrated by Tareq M Zayed as the 'Emancipatory Worldview' in his writing "History of emancipatory worldview of Muslim learners". The question mentioned above - on whether the super-smart machines, that is, any superintelligences , as expected by some, could have worldviews - is interesting in this context and this would influence human worldviews. The philosophical importance of worldviews became increasingly clear during the 20th century for a number of reasons, such as increasing contact between cultures, and the failure of some aspects of the Enlightenment project, such as the rationalist project of attaining all truth by reason alone.

Mathematical logic showed that fundamental choices of axioms were essential in deductive reasoning [29] and that, even having chosen axioms not everything that was true in a given logical system could be proven. The theory of relativity offers a Weltanschauung that is revolting to absolute space and time , yet provides a context for modern theories of electromagnetism and gravity. In a book review for a new undergraduate textbook on relativity by Wolfgang Rindler , Kenneth Jacobs [33] noted that "during the post- Sputnik era, special relativity began to take its rightful place in the undergraduate curriculum".

All of the participants had normal or corrected to normal vision and normal hearing. All of the participants reported that they did not have any neurological or psychiatric disorders, including drug abuse, and that they were not on any medications during the experiment. Data from three participants were not included in the analysis because on pre-processing data stage problems with recording and due to excessive muscle artifacts reviled in them.


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The remaining 39 participants 2 33 women, 6 men had a mean age of All of them self-reported as being religious, and as having been brought up in Christianity. The experiment was run in a sound-attenuated cabin. This scale defines religious fundamentalism along four dimensions: 1 the belief that there is a single set of religious teachings containing the fundamental, basic, intrinsic, inerrant truth about the deity and humanity; 2 this essential truth stands in opposition to evil, which must be actively fought; 3 the truth is to be followed in our current day according to the fundamental practices of the past; and 4 people who succeed in following these fundamental teachings have a special relationship with the deity.

All participants stayed within previous category of high and low NFC.

How Should a Democracy Deal with Fundamentalism? A Humanist View

This computerized version of the EST consisted of a series of words neutral terms and those related to errors, pondering, and uncertainty printed in one of four different colors yellow, red, green, or blue , and grouped in four blocks. The words were selected based on a pilot study. Participants were instructed to name the font color of a presented word and to neglect its meaning. After 28 practice trials for the training session numerals — one, two, etc. In each trial, a word was presented for ms; the maximum time for a response was restricted to ms.

The blocks were presented in a random order.