A Manual for Biomaterials Scaffold Fabrication Technology (Manuals in Biomedical Research)

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International Journal of Pharmaceutics — Yang, S.

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  • Biomaterial Scaffold Fabrication Techniques for Potential Tissue Engineering Applications.
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Park, Ho Geun Yoon, Y. Huhd, S. Preparation of poly caprolactone nanoparticles containing magnetite for magnetic drug carrier. Chen, J. Bei, S. Polymer Degradation and Stability 67 Conclusion: [6] M. Espuelas, Legrand J. Irache We have prepared a novel biodegradable Gamazo, A. Orecchioni, P. Curcumin loaded PCL toxicity, International Journal of nanocarriers were characterized in terms of Pharmaceutics 19 This microspheres and nanospheres: an polymer drug formulation have the following overview.

International Journal of advantages: small particle size nm , Pharmaceutics 1— These preliminary to clinic commentary. Biochemical results suggested that PCL based Pharmacology 75 Nitric oxide delivery system for curcumin. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 49 8. References: P, Wahl M.

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Indian Journal of of nitric oxide synthase in activated Physiology and Pharmacology 46 macrophages. Biochemical and Caliceti P. Prevention of ischaemia induced targeting. Journal of Drug Targeting 15 biochemical changes by curcumin and Enzyme Journal of Medical Research catalysis: tool to make and break 31 Journal of carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, a American Chemical Society naturally occurring plant phenolic Lavasanifar A, Samuel J. Antihepatotoxic principles analysis of curcumin in rat plasma: of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Planta application to pharmacokinetics of Medica 49 Journal of Biomedical Priyadarsini KI.

Transport of Chromatography 21 Karikar C, Maitra A, et al. Journal of nanoparticles for delivery to cancer Nanobiotechnology 5 3 Loading of curcumin into Biodegradable Cancer Cells.

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Biomacromolecules 9 microspheres of curcumin for treatment — In the present work effort has been given to fabricate composite scaffolds from chitosan taking wollastonite as filler by freeze gelation method based on thermally induced phase separation principle. Also there is shifting of peaks for Amide group and some extra peaks have been observed below cm 1.

It confirms that the interaction has altered the ring strain which cause the shifting of some of the peaks of FTIR. This confirms that composite scaffold is crystalline in nature while pure chitosan scaffold is amorphous.

Hence it can be predicted that the degradation rate of composite scaffold is lower and it can be regulated for controlling the degradation rate. The idea of differentiation [1]. In this context, using this unique method of fabrication is fabrication and design of tissue engineered that these scaffolds will provide a greater scaffolds is of paramount importance for the surface area for direct cell adhesion and formation of viable cell scaffold constructs. The use of tissue and extra cellular matrix ECM , organic solvents remains a concern for the cellular migration and transport of nutrients inclusion of cells and bioactive molecules in and metabolic wastes [2].

The scaffold freeze drying method which is overcome by should meet several requirements freeze gelation method. Moreover the depending on the application. Many synthetic bioabsorbable and can induce hydroxapatite formation. But the release of acidic enhances the mechanical strength [13]. So the natural occurring calcium silicate which has been polymers like collagen, chitin and chitosan widely used as filler in polymers to fabricate can be used as they are typically composites with improved mechanical biocompatible, biodegradable and non toxic properties.

It is a bioactive ceramic with in nature.

Their main advantage is that they excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility contain bio functional molecules that aid the [14]. It is white in colour and possesses a attachment, proliferation, and differentiation good number of favourable properties useful of cells. Recently chitosan has been given in several ceramic and other applications much attention due to its wide applications such as low shrinkage, good strength, and in textiles, ophthalmology, paper coatings, lack of volatile constituents, body agricultural, food industries, biomedical and permeability and fluxing characteristics [8].

It is a unique method of fabrication, which involves the principle of thermally induced ' phase separation [16]. Scaffolds prepared Chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from by this method provide a greater surface the N deacetylation of chitin. The molecular area for direct cell adhesion and even more structure of chitosan is a co polymer guidance to cell growth.

After freezing the gel is greater solubility and reactivity than chitin warmed to melt the ice crystals and then [11]. Chitosan exhibits many enticing dried. This causes a relatively high degree of properties like biocompatibility, continuous porosity, with pores duplicating biodegradability, non toxic, hydrophilic, the morphology and dimensions of the ice hence facilitates cell adhesion, proliferation crystals formed during the freezing process and differentiation. Also it has significant [18,19].

This method overcomes many of antibacterial and antifungal activity [10]. It forms low cost, crack free, mechanical strength and may not be essentially zero shrinkage scaffolds [17]. Many inorganic materials materials to prepare wollastonite. Chitosan including calcium carbonate, calcium Himedia used as matrix materials for phosphate and silica have been studied for scaffold preparation. Wollastonite is a naturally purity, Rankhem Pt Ltd. This solutions. The stirring. The residue obtained was dried at isothermal cooling may be assumed.

The obtained into a structure having more density than powder was then preserved in an air tight the previous one. Characterization of bottle for future use [14,15].

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This problem can be , overcomed by preparing composite 0 ' scaffolds. Introduction of wollastonite into chitosan polymer induces the deposition of The powder obtained by chemical co hydroxyapatite HA on the surface of the precipitation method was found to be white composite scaffold when soaked in in colour figure 1. X ray diffraction XRD simulated body fluids SBF and thus is a versatile, non destructive technique that enhances both mechanical strength and reveals detailed information about the bioactivity of the composite [15] chemical composition and crystallographic Enhancement of the bioactive property of structure of natural and manufactured scaffold could be achieved by combining materials.

These forms pure chitosan solution has been prepared are not easily distinguishable except by with 1M aceticacid as solvent by constant single crystal X ray work. The XRD pattern stirring until a homogenous mixture of figure2 of wollastonite powder was chitosan solution is formed. A platinum layer was then coated on the specimen surface under an inert atmosphere. SEM results show that both pure chitosan Composite scaffold using chitosan and Fig.

The prepared pure interconnectivity of pores. The average pore chitosan scaffold was cream in colour while size for pure chitosan was found to be composite scaffold was white in colour approximately 50 ;m, but in case of figure 3 and no microbial or fungal growth composite scaffold the average pore size was observed on storage in dry state which was being reduced to But the explains the retention of antimicrobial and average number of pores nearly remains antifungal activity of the composite scaffold same in pure chitosan as well as the containing chitosan..

During the gelation composite one. The other peaks found in the transmittance and wave number as shown in composite which were completely absent in figure 5. FITR spectra showed the following chitosan curve are at , , , , absorption peaks. The absorbance at , , , , , , , , cm 1 is due to N H bending. The 3 peaks cm 1. The range between cm 1 between cm 1 shows the and cm 1 correspond to the scissoring mode of N H bond. The peaks in the stretching.

The absorbance in the range range cm 1 correspond to the cm 1 is likely to be due to amide presence of phosphate group which is due to group.

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N H stretch is likely to be at PBS phosphate buffer as shown in figure cm 1 but due to ring strain the absorbance 5. Since Si O Si O absorbs below cm 1 takes place in the region cm 1. From The peaks between cm 1 are for the above mentioned data we can conclude C O stretching. In composite scaffold due to that the interaction between chitosan and the presence of wollastonite CaSiO3 there wollastonite are not severe enough to make is mild shifting of some peaks like N H and any appreciable change in property and C N bonds and some extra peaks have been hence it can be predicted that individual observed.

The absorbance range property of the element is being retained. The absorbance in X ray diffraction is a proven tool to study the range cm 1 bears some extra crystal lattice arrangements and yields very peaks which are due to the interaction of Si useful information on degree of sample with oxygen and nitrogen of pure chitosan. X ray patterns of pure chitosan and approximately when studied under SEM.

However, plane while pure chitosan scaffold has the specific board peak for chitosan amorphous structure. X ray diffraction group and some extra peaks have been patterns of chitosan:wollastonite show observed below cm 1. From these shifting of some of the peaks of FTIR.

But diffractograms, it is obvious that composite the major change in property of composite scaffold is more crystalline than pure is due to physical interaction.